How can you tell when there has been a contribution to knowledge (in a doctoral research study)?

the (research) supervisor's friend

Doctoral research, by definition, usually involves a contribution to knowledge. This requirement is often made explicit in the various university policies which define the nature of their doctoral degrees.

As an examiner of dissertations, this is one of the elements to which I am alert when examining a dissertation. Given that I have to make a judgement as to whether the dissertation has made a contribution to knowledge, I look for evidence. This evidence not only helps in my decision making, but by alerting research supervisors to the agenda of evidence that I use to establish that a dissertation has made a contribution to knowledge, this draws attention to what they might be looking for when they read their research student’s final draft dissertation before it is submitted to the examiners.

1. The argument that there is a contribution to knowledge.

When a research student reviews the literature related to…

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By Egena Ode

This is a simple guide I have prepared for aspiring entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship students. After reading this write up, you should be able to recognize why and when to develop a feasibility study, know how to identify a business feasibility study and explain the major sections of a classic feasibility study. This article will also enable the reader to focus feasibility study sections to meet specific needs, know the major pitfalls when writing feasibility studies and learn how to present a feasibility study to others.


As an entrepreneur, after identifying a business idea/opportunity, introducing/development of a new product, the next phase in the development of an idea/product is to conduct a feasibility study to ascertain the viability of the business (venture) and obtaining useful information to plan and make decision on whether to go-on or not. The feasibility study is conducted during the deliberation phase of the business idea prior to commencement of a formal Business Plan. That is, a feasibility study of a business is done on an ex ante (before the business or venture comes into existence) basis. At the end of the feasibility study a feasibility report is written which provide a basis for taking investment decisions and could also be used in securing finance for the business, product/services.

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Prepared by Ode Egena


According to Brock (1992), the primary objective of a business proposal is to persuade your target audience to take specific action. The key word is TO PERSUADE. In preparing a business proposal, always note that the objective is to persuade the readers (clients, audience, customers, etc), whether it is to persuade a potential customer to purchase goods and/or services, or to persuade your employer to fund a project or to implement a program that you would like to launch.

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By odeexpress